TI Україна закликає Раду позбавити СБУ обов’язку боротися з корупцією

Transparency International Україна закликає Верховну Раду позбавити СБУ завдань та обов’язків у сфері протидії економічним та корупційним злочинам.

 «Це дозволить спецслужбі звільнити кадрові й інші ресурси для ефективної боротьби із загрозами національній безпеці і зосередитися на контррозвідці та боротьбі з тероризмом», – йдеться у заяві організації.

У Transparency International Україна також переконані, що ці новації також дозволять уникнути дублювання функцій з іншими правоохоронними органами.

TI Україна вважає за доцільне зняти з СБУ завдання з попередження, виявлення, припинення та розкриття злочинів в сфері економіки та боротьби з корупцією, тому організація підтримує поправки до законопроекту №8068 «Про національну безпеку України», які забезпечать такі зміни.

У лютому президент України Петро Порошенко вніс до парламенту законопроект про нацбезпеку України. Як заявляв президент України Петро Порошенко, серед іншого, законопроект, передбачатиме запровадження цивільного парламентського контролю за діяльністю СБУ.

У квітні Верховна Рада підтримала президентський законопроект про національну безпеку.  Сьогодні депутати планують розглядати цей законопроект. 

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П’ятеро людей загинули в ДТП в окупованому Криму

В окупованому Росією Криму минулої ночі в результаті зіткнення легкового автомобіля Toyota Corolla з вантажівкою КАМАЗ загинули п’ятеро людей. Усі жертви перебували в легковому автомобілі, повідомляють російські інформагенції.

Аварія сталася 19 червня близько 23:00 на трасі Сімферополь – Миколаївка біля села Лікарське. У ліквідації наслідків ДТП було задіяно 20 осіб, повідомили в рятувальній службі окупованого півострова.

Фахівці встановлюють обставини аварії.

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У Києві спостерігається концентрація шкідливих домішок в повітрі – КМДА

У Києві з 18 червня спостерігаються накопичення і утримання шкідливих домішок у приземному шарі повітря.

Як повідомила 19 червня прес-служба КМДА з посиланням на дані Укргідрометцентру,протягом 18-19 червня рівень забруднення діоксидом азоту досяг 4-5 середньодобових ГДК (гранично-допустима концентрація) у районах площ Бессарабської та Деміївської; проспектів Оболонського та Перемоги; вулиць Довженка, Попудренка.

За даним адміністрації, рівень забруднення формальдегідом досяг 5-7 середньодобових ГДК у районах площ Бессарабської, Деміївської, проспектів Оболонського та Перемоги, бульвару Лесі Українки та вулиць Довженка, Каунаської.

Читайте також: Сім мільйонів людей щороку помирають через забруднене повітря – ВООЗ

У КМДА додають, що сприятливі для утримання в повітрі шкідливих домішок метеорологічні умови (антициклональний характер погоди, нічна приземна інверсія, слабкий вітер у приземному шарі та висока температура повітря) зберігатимуться у Києві до 22 червня.​

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Керівник Корпусу вартових ісламської революції відкинув заклик до переговорів зі США

Командувач Корпусу вартових Ісламської революції Мохаммад Алі Джафарі відкинув заклики іранських активістів до прямих переговорів зі США для вирішення давніх розбіжностей. 19 червня він заявив, що вони «перебувають на боці США, ворога людей».

«Порозуміння зі Сполученими Штатами означає смерть Ісламської республіки», – цитує слова генерала Алі Джафарі інформаційне агентство ISNA.

Раніше понад 100 активістів із поміркованих і реформістських таборів іранської політики привітали домовленості між президентом США Дональдом Трампом та лідером Північної Кореї Кім Чен Ином щодо повного ядерного роззброєння Корейського півострова. Активісти, які переважно перебувають за кордонами Ірану, закликали Тегеран розпочати прямі переговори з Вашингтоном для вирішення десятиліть ворожнечі між двома країнами після ісламської революції 1979 року в Ірані.

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Іран відкинув план Росії та Саудівської Аравії щодо збільшення видобутку нафти

Іран відкинув запропонований Росією та Саудівською Аравією план збільшення видобутку нафти. Дві провідні нафтовидобувні країни запропонували обговорити цей план на найближчому саміті Організації країн-експортерів нафти (ОПЕК) 22 червня, а наступного дня узгодити спільні дії між членами ОПЕК і тими країнами, які не входять до картеля, як Росія. 

«Я не вірю, що на цій зустрічі ми можемо досягти згоди», – заявив міністр нафтової промисловості Ірану Біджан Зангане 19 червня після прибуття до Відня, де розташований головний офіс ОПЕК. Він звинуватив президента США Дональда Трампа в тому, що запровадження санкцій проти Венесуели та Ірану, спричинило зниження виробництва та підвищення цін.

«І зараз він (Трамп – ред.) сподівається, що ОПЕК дещо змінить. Це несправедливо. ОПЕК – це незалежна організація, а не така, яка отримує інструкції від президента Трампа. ОПЕК не є частиною міністерства енергетики Сполучених Штатів», – відзначив Зангане.

Москва та Ер-Ріяд пропонують повернути на ринок більшу частину з обсягу 1,8 мільйона барелів на день, щодо якого ОПЕК та інші великі виробники погодились на скорочення у 2016 році. Останнім часом Сполучені Штати, Китай та інші великі споживачі нафти закликали ОПЕК вдатися до таких дій.

Іран узгодив свою опозицію збільшенню постачання нафти разом із трьома іншими впливовими членами ОПЕК – Іраком, Алжиром та Венесуелою.

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ЄС стурбований виходом США із складу Ради з прав людини

Європейський союз стурбований рішенням США вийти з Ради ООН з прав людини.

«Рішення може підірвати роль США як лідера та прихильника демократії на світовій арені. Тим не менш, Європейський Союз продовжуватиме захищати права людини і основні свободи, як на багатосторонніх форумах, так і в усьому світі, також, коли це можливо, співпрацюючи з США», – йдеться в заяві Європейської служби з зовнішніх зв’язків.

Євросоюз підтверджує свою підтримку ефективному функціонуванню Ради з прав людини і планує продовжити співпрацювати з усіма країнами задля зміцнення Ради.

19 червня США відмовилися від членства в Раді ООН з прав людини, назвавши цей орган «корисливим». Виступаючи в Держдепартаменті, постійний представник ООН Ніккі Хейлі засудила Раду за те, що вона закриває очі на серйозні порушення прав людини владою авторитарних країн, але при цьому перетворила Ізраїль в об’єкт постійної критики. 

В ООН наголошують на важливості Ради з прав людини і хотіли б, щоб США залишалися в складі цього органу.

Читайте також: В ООН провалилися обидві резолюції щодо Смуги Гази

Рада з прав людини створена в 2006 році. За 12 років існування жодна країна-учасниця, яких нині 47, не покидала добровільно цей орган. Відповідно до резолюції ООН, головною метою РПЛ є захист прав і основних свобод людини, а також ефективна координація та інтеграція діяльності, що стосується прав людини, у рамках системи ООН.

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Russian Fans Celebrate Once-maligned Team as Heroes

What a transformation. Russia’s World Cup soccer team, metamorphosed from national laughingstock to heroes of the motherland in less than a week.

 

And no one is more stunned than their own fans.

 

Chants of “Ro-see-ya! Ro-see-ya!” reverberated through the St. Petersburg Stadium and along the nearby wind-whipped shores of the Baltic on Tuesday after Russia beat Egypt 3-1.

“Incredible!” said science student Daniil Stefaychuk. He went into Tuesday’s match dreaming of a tie, and left with his voice sore from screaming with excitement.

Thousands celebrated through the night in central Moscow, dancing, chanting and blowing car horns while lines of police kept watch. Roads were blocked by cars full of flag-waving Russia fans. Mexican, Polish and Brazilian fans also joined in the festivities.

 

Even in a World Cup full of surprises, Russia’s team stands out. The lowest ranked team heading into the World Cup , Russia is now all but guaranteed to advance to the second round.

 

That’s a first for post-Soviet Russia, and a big boost both to fans and to President Vladimir Putin, who wants the tournament to improve his country’s image.

 

Russia’s 5-0 win against Saudi Arabia in the World Cup opener last week might have been a fluke. But Tuesday’s win against the stronger Egyptian team showed the Russian players “the experience, the skills, the energy” to go much farther, said St. Petersburg company manager Alexei Ivanov.

 

He claims fans deserve some of the credit: “When you’re among your own, you’re more confident.”

 

Yet he was among those with little hope for the team going into the World Cup.

“It seemed like they absolutely didn’t know how to play,” he said. His laugh echoed with relief.

 

With a satiric song and goofy video games, Russians openly joked about their team and its coach ahead of the tournament.

 

The teasing got so bad that a conservative lawmaker is drafting a bill to ban mockery of the team, arguing that they’re “fighting for the honor of our country.”

 

Fans seem to think that’s going too far. “Constructive criticism helps,” said sports instructor Andrei Ushakov.

 

A week ago, there was an undercurrent of self-deprecation and defensiveness in the Russian fan mood. By Tuesday night, that had vanished, replaced by an assertive swagger.

 

Crowds draped in white-blue-red Russian flags sang folk songs and whooped wildly in the marbled corridors of the St. Petersburg subway.

So what’s next for the team? “Victory, only victory,” Ushakov said.

 

Karen Arutunian, who is about to turn 8 years old, isn’t so optimistic.

 

Arutunian successfully predicted Tuesday’s result, unlike anyone else in his family. He thinks Russia’s next match, against Uruguay next week, will end in a tie.

 

“We won’t win. But it doesn’t matter. We’re making it out of the first round,” he said. “It’s the best feeling.”

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Recycling Rubbish into Revenue, Plan Brings Hope to Women in Jordan

Sameera Al Salam folds a discarded piece of newspaper into a long strip then loops it round her finger to form a tight circle, the first stage of making the upcycled handbags, trays and bowls the Syrian refugee hopes will help her earn a living.

Al Salam, 55, was a hairdresser with a passion for “art and making things” before she fled her war-torn homeland for Irbid in northern Jordan with her family in 2012.

Now she has two teenagers and a husband left paralyzed by a stroke to support in a country where she has no automatic legal right to work, and they are three months behind on their rent.

“We were living a really happy life. I had a garden where I grew everything,” Al Salam told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. “We had to leave because of the airstrikes. We were always trying to put things in front of the door to protect the children. Whenever I remember, it breaks my heart.”

Like most of the more than 655,000 Syrian refugees living in Jordan — and many Jordanians — poverty, debt and unemployment dominate the family’s existence.

Al Salam hopes her involvement in a new rubbish collection and recycling plan that aims to alleviate the poverty of both refugees and locals and bring the two communities closer will help turn things around.

The project, managed by charity Action Against Hunger, employs 1,200 people to collect and sort waste from the streets and provides temporary work permits to refugees who take part.

Nearly half the participants are female in a country where women can face cultural and family obstacles to employment, including a culture of shame around going out to work.

One in three Syrian refugee households in Jordan is headed by women and more and more are now seeking jobs in an already crowded market.

More than 80 percent of the Syrian refugees in Jordan live below the poverty line, according to Care International.

Awsaf Qaddah, a 39-year-old Syrian widow, said working as a rubbish collector initially felt like “a kind of shame,” but she now feels only pride.

“The job took me out of this atmosphere I was living in at home. Women can and should go out and work, especially with the circumstances we’re facing,” she said. “I have no husband or father or brother to help — I’m proud to do it.”

Fellow worker Berwen Misterihi, who is Jordanian, was forced to earn after her husband left her and their four children.

“Women and men would make comments about me picking up waste,” she said.

“I said to one man, ‘I’d rather work than come to you for the money’ and he apologized.”

‘Like Siblings’

The project workers were given 50-day contracts paying 12 Jordanian Dinar ($16.90) a day, plus training and social security provisions. Some of the waste was sold to scrap dealers for extra cash.

Al Salam was among a group of women who started an upcycling project, turning the waste paper and plastic they collected into objects to sell.

Action Against Hunger, which has managed the waste project since 2017 with German government funding, is now setting up a second phase focusing on equipping cooperatives and workers to continue waste processing and upcycling unaided.

“First there was a focus on breaking the culture of shame for women. Then we wanted ideas of how they could benefit from waste,” said Sajeda Saqallah, programme manager with Action Against Hunger. “Upcycling is a new concept here, so we took them to Amman to learn about it.”

Al Salam said her husband did not object to her taking part in the project. She now hopes she will get training on marketing and trademarking and win one of a number of new contracts Action Against Hunger is providing to carry on upcycling for wages.

The women in her upcycling group meet regularly and share ideas and news in a WhatsApp group.

At a workshop filled with their creations – from handbags to light shades to side tables, all made from recycled newspaper and cardboard – Sahira Zoubi, a Syrian refugee and mother of five excitedly points to the gold handbag she made.

Zoubi, who has not seen her husband since the Syrian army captured him in 2012, has made close friends through the project from both Syria and Jordan who she says are “like siblings.”

“Doing this project is so joyful because you come here and forget about your problems,” she said.

Al Salam breaks down as she tells how the project has allowed her to overcome her fears of being a refugee in a strange country.

“I never really mixed with people before this. I was afraid to go outside, I wasn’t involved in the community,” she said. “I was from a different country. I didn’t know what people were going to do to me or what they would say. Now I like to mingle.”

($1 = 0.7100 Jordanian dinars)

Travel for this story was covered by Action Against Hunger.

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China Calls Trump Threat of More Tariffs ‘Blackmail’

China calls President Donald Trump’s threat to slap more tariffs on Chinese exports to the U.S. “extreme pressure and blackmail” and threatens to retaliate.

Beijing reacted Tuesday to Trump’s plan to impose tariffs on another $200 billion of Chinese goods “if China refuses to change its practices.”

“China apparently has no intention of changing its unfair practices related to the acquisition of American intellectual property and technology,” a presidential statement said late Monday. “Rather than altering those practices, it is now threatening United States companies, workers, and farmers who have done nothing wrong.”

The president has ordered Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer to identify a list of $200 billion in additional Chinese goods subject to a 10 percent tariff — a move that would bring on another round of Chinese penalties on American products.

Trump has already ordered 25 percent tariffs on $50 billion in Chinese products. Those penalties are scheduled to take effect next month and will likely be followed by Chinese countermeasures.

The U.S. has long accused China of stealing U.S. technology secrets, requiring U.S. firms to share intellectual property as a condition for doing business in joint ventures in China. China denies such theft and accuses Washington of “deviating from the consensus reached by both parties.”

The Director of White House National Trade Council, Peter Navarro, told reporters Tuesday the White House has given China every opportunity to change its “aggressive behavior.”

Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping held a summit last year at Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort. But that meeting and several rounds of trade talks between high-level officials in the past year have not yielded any progress.

“It is important to note here that the actions President Trump has taken are purely defensive in nature. They are designed to defend the crown jewels of American technology from China’s aggressive behavior,” Navarro contended. 

U.S. stock market tumbled on Tuesday following the latest salvos between Washington and Beijing. The Dow Jones Industrial Average lost more than 1.1 percent at the close of trading and other major indexes posted losses as well. 

But Navarro dismissed concerns about how the administration’s trade policy would affect the financial markets and global economy, saying it will have only a “relatively small effect.” He argued the U.S. steps will ultimately benefit the country and global trading system. 

Navarro did not reveal plans for further trade talks between Washington and Beijing, but added, “our phone lines are open, they have always been open.”

Trump has said he has an excellent relationship with Chinese President Xi Jinping, but has also said “the United States will no longer be taken advantage of on trade by China and other countries in the world.”

He has imposed tariffs on aluminum and steel imports from Canada, Mexico, and the European Union and is feuding over trade with some of the United States’ closest allies.

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Scan on Exit: Can Blockchain Save Moldova’s Children from Traffickers?

Laura was barely 18 when a palm reader told her she could make $180 a month working in beetroot farms in Russia — an attractive sum for a girl struggling to make a living in the town of Drochia, in Moldova’s impoverished north.

That she had no passport, the fortune teller said, was not a problem. Her future employers would help her cross the border.

“They gave me a [fake] birth certificate stating I was 14,” Laura, who declined to give her real name, told Reuters in an interview.

That was enough to get her through border controls as she traveled by bus with a smuggler posing as one of her parents.

It was the beginning of a long tale of exploitation for Laura — one of many such stories in Moldova in eastern Europe, which aims to become the first country in the world to pilot blockchain to tackle decades of widespread human trafficking.

Trafficking generates illegal profits of $150 billion a year globally, with about 40 million people estimated to be trapped as modern-day slaves — mostly women and girls — in forced labor and forced marriages, according to leading anti-slavery groups.

The digital tool behind the cryptocurrency bitcoin is increasingly being tested for social causes, from Coca-Cola creating a workers’ registry to fight forced labor to tracking supply chains, such as cobalt which is often mined by children.

Moldova has one of the highest rates of human trafficking in Europe as widespread poverty and unemployment drive many young people, mostly women, to look for work overseas, according to the United Nations migration agency (IOM).

Due to the hidden nature of trafficking and the stigma attached, it is unknown how many people in the former Soviet country have been trafficked abroad but IOM has helped some 3,400 victims — 10 percent of whom were children — since 2001.

In Russia, Laura was forced to toil long hours, beaten and never paid. After ending up in hospital, she was rescued by a doctor, only to be trafficked again a few years later when an abusive partner sold her into prostitution.

She now lives with her daughter in a rehabilitation center in the northern village of Palaria with help from the charity CCF Moldova.

“I had a lot of suffering,” the 36-year-old said. “I am very afraid of being sold again, afraid about my child.”

​Scans and bribes

Moldova plans to launch a pilot of its digital identity project this year, working with the Brooklyn-based software company ConsenSys, which won a U.N. competition in March to design an identity system to combat child trafficking.

Undocumented children are easy prey for traffickers using fake documents to transport them across borders to work in brothels or to sell their organs, experts say.

More than 40,000 Moldovan children have been left behind by parents who have migrated abroad for work, often with little supervision, according to IOM.

“A lot of children are staying just with their grandfathers or grandmas, spending [more] time in the streets,” said Lilian Levandovschi, head of Moldova’s anti-trafficking police unit.

Moldova, with a population of 3.5 million, is among the poorest countries in Europe with an average monthly disposable income of 2,250 Moldovan Leu ($135), government data shows.

ConsenSys aims to create a secure, digital identity on a blockchain — or decentralized digital ledger shared by a network of computers — for Moldovan children, linking their personal identities with other family members.

Moldova has strengthened its anti-trafficking laws since Laura’s ordeal and children now need to carry a passport and be accompanied by a parent, or an adult carrying a letter of permission signed by a guardian, to exit the country.

With the blockchain system, children attempting to cross the border would be asked to scan their eyes or fingerprints.

A phone alert would notify their legal guardians, requiring at least two to approve the crossing, said Robert Greenfield who is managing the ConsenSys project.

Any attempt to take a child abroad without their guardians’ permission would be permanently recorded on the database, which would detect patterns of behavior to help catch traffickers and could be used as evidence in court.

“Nobody can bribe someone to delete that information,” said Mariana Dahan, co-founder of World Identity Network (WIN), an initiative promoting digital identities and a partner in the blockchain competition.

Corruption and official complicity in trafficking are significant problems in Moldova, according to the U.S. State Department, which last year downgraded it to Tier 2 in a watchlist of those not doing enough to fight modern day slavery.

Moldova is eager to prove that it is taking action, as a further demotion could block access to U.S. aid and loans.

​Tricked

Many details have yet to be agreed before the blockchain project starts, including funding, populations targeted, the type of biometrical data collected, and where it will be stored.

But the scheme is facing resistance from some anti-trafficking groups who say it will not help the majority of victims — children trafficked within Moldova’s borders and adults who are tricked when they travel abroad seeking work.

“As long as we don’t have job opportunities … trafficking will still remain a problem for Moldova,” said IOM’s Irina Arap.

Minors made up less than 20 percent of 249 domestic and international trafficking victims identified in 2017, said Ecaterina Berejan, head of Moldova’s anti-trafficking agency.

“For Moldova, this is not a very big problem,” she said, referring to cross-border child trafficking, adding that child victims may travel with valid documents as their families are in cahoots with traffickers in some cases.

But supporters of the blockchain initiative say low official trafficking figures do not account for undetected cases, and they have a duty to attempt to stay ahead of the criminals.

“Many times, authorities are late in using latest technologies,” said Mihail Beregoi, state secretary for Moldova’s internal affairs ministry. “Usually organized crime uses them first and more successfully. … Any effort [to] secure at least one child is already worth trying.”

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Trump’s Tariffs: What They Are and How They Would Work

Is this what a trade war looks like?

The Trump administration and China’s leadership have threatened to impose tariffs on $50 billion of each other’s goods. Trump has proposed imposing duties on $400 billion more if China doesn’t further open its markets to U.S. companies and reduce its trade surplus with the United States. China, in turn, says it will retaliate.

In recent years, tariffs had been losing favor as a tool of national trade policy. They were largely a relic of 19th and early 20th centuries that most experts viewed as mutually harmful to all nations involved. But President Donald Trump has restored tariffs to a prominent place in his self-described America First approach.

Trump enraged U.S. allies Canada, Mexico and the European Union earlier this month by slapping tariffs on their steel and aluminum shipments to the United States. The tariffs have been in place on most other countries since March.

Trump has also asked the U.S. Commerce Department to look into imposing tariffs on imported cars, trucks and auto parts, arguing that they pose a threat to U.S. national security.

Here is a look at what tariffs are, how they work, how they’ve been used in the past and what to expect now.

Are we in a trade war?

Economists have no set definition of a trade war. But with the world’s two largest economies aggressively threatening each other with punishing tariffs, such a war appears perilously close. All told, the White House has threatened to hit $450 billion of China’s exports to the U.S. with punitive tariffs. That’s equivalent to 90 percent of the goods that China shipped to the United States last year.

It’s not uncommon for countries — even close allies — to fight over trade in specific products. The United States and Canada, for example, have squabbled for decades over softwood lumber.

But the U.S. and China are fighting over much broader issues, such as China’s requirements that American companies share advanced technology to access China’s market, and the overall trade deficit the U.S. has with China. So far, neither side has shown any sign of bending.

What are tariffs?

Tariffs are a tax on imports. They’re typically charged as a percentage of the transaction price that a buyer pays a foreign seller. Say an American retailer buys 100 garden umbrellas from China for $5 apiece, or $500. The U.S. tariff rate for the umbrellas is 6.5 percent. The retailer would have to pay a $32.50 tariff on the shipment, raising the total price from $500 to $532.50.

In the United States, tariffs — also called duties or levies — are collected by Customs and Border Protection agents at 328 ports of entry across the country. Proceeds go to the Treasury. The tariff rates are published by the U.S. International Trade Commission in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule, which lists U.S. tariffs on everything from dried plantains (1.4 percent) to parachutes (3 percent).

Sometimes, the U.S. will impose additional duties on foreign imports that it determines are being sold at unfairly low prices or are being supported by foreign government subsidies.

Do other countries have higher tariffs than the United States?

Most key U.S. trading partners do not have significantly higher average tariffs. According to an analysis by Greg Daco at Oxford Economics, U.S. tariffs, adjusted for trade volumes, on goods from around the world average 2.4 percent, above Japan’s 2 percent and just below the 3 percent for the European Union and 3.1 percent for Canada.

The comparable figures for Mexico and China are higher: Both have higher duties that top 4 percent.

Trump has complained about the 270 percent duty that Canada imposes on dairy products. But the United States has its own ultra-high tariffs — 168 percent on peanuts and 350 percent on tobacco.

What are tariffs supposed to accomplish?

Two things: Raise government revenue and protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Before the establishment of the federal income tax in 1913, tariffs were a big money raiser for the U.S. government. From 1790 to 1860, for example, they produced 90 percent of federal revenue, according to Clashing Over Commerce: A History of US Trade Policy by Douglas Irwin, an economist at Dartmouth College. By contrast, last year tariffs accounted for only about 1 percent of federal revenue.

In the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30, the U.S. government collected $34.6 billion in customs duties and fees. The White House Office of Management and Budget expects tariffs to fetch $40.4 billion this year.

Those tariffs are meant to increase the price of imports or to punish foreign countries for committing unfair trade practices, like subsidizing their exporters and dumping their products at unfairly low prices. Tariffs discourage imports by making them more expensive. They also reduce competitive pressure on domestic competitors and can allow them to raise prices.

Tariffs fell out of favor as global trade expanded after World War II.

The formation of the World Trade Organization and the advent of trade deals like the North American Free Trade Agreement among the U.S., Mexico and Canada reduced tariffs or eliminated them altogether.

Why are tariffs making a comeback?

After years of trade agreements that bound the countries of the world more closely and erased restrictions on trade, a populist backlash has grown against globalization. This was evident in Trump’s 2016 election and the British vote that year to leave the European Union — both surprise setbacks for the free-trade establishment.

Critics note that big corporations in rich countries exploited looser rules to move factories to China and other low-wage countries, then shipped goods back to their wealthy home countries while paying low tariffs or none at all. Since China joined the WTO in 2001, the United States has shed 3.1 million factory jobs, though many economists attribute much of that loss not to trade but to robots and other technologies that replace human workers.

Trump campaigned on a pledge to rewrite trade agreements and crack down on China, Mexico and other countries. He blames what he calls their abusive trade policies for America’s persistent trade deficits — $566 billion last year. Most economists, by contrast, say the deficit simply reflects the reality that the United States spends more than it saves. By imposing tariffs, he is beginning to turn his hard-line campaign rhetoric into action.

Are tariffs a wise policy?

Most economists — Trump’s trade adviser Peter Navarro is a notable exception — say no. The tariffs drive up the cost of imports. And by reducing competitive pressure, they give U.S. producers leeway to raise their prices, too. That’s good for those producers — but bad for almost everyone else.

Rising costs especially hurt consumers and companies that rely on imported components. Some U.S. companies that buy steel are complaining that Trump’s tariffs put them at a competitive disadvantage. Their foreign rivals can buy steel more cheaply and offer their products at lower prices.

More broadly, economists say trade restrictions make the economy less efficient. Facing less competition from abroad, domestic companies lose the incentive to increase efficiency or to focus on what they do best.

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IMF Chief: Ukraine Anti-corruption Court Law Needs Amending 

Christine Lagarde, the head of the International Monetary Fund, welcomed on Tuesday the adoption by Ukraine’s parliament of a law to create an anti-corruption court, but said lawmakers needed to amend it to guarantee the court’s effectiveness.

Creating an independent and trustworthy court dedicated to handling corruption cases is one of the key conditions for Ukraine to receive further funding under its $17.5 billion aid-for-reforms program from the IMF.

Earlier in June, parliament passed the law after months of delay, but the draft contained an amendment that activists said would undermine the reform by allowing appeals on existing cases to be handled by the current courts system.

In the Fund’s first direct comments on the law, Lagarde said she had spoken with President Petro Poroshenko and said she was encouraged by the adoption of the legislation.

“We agreed that it is now important for parliament to quickly approve … the necessary amendments to restore the requirement that the HACC (anti-corruption court) will adjudicate all cases under its jurisdiction,” she said in a statement.

The law is meant to ring-fence court decisions from political pressure or bribery in Ukraine, where entrenched corruption remains a deterrent to foreign investors and knocks two percentage points off Ukraine’s economic growth each year, according to the IMF.

Establishing the court, adjusting gas prices and honouring budget commitments are key conditions to unlock the next loan tranche under the IMF program, which expires next year.

Lagarde said she and Poroshenko had “also agreed to work closely together, including with the government, toward the timely implementation of this and other actions, notably related to gas prices and the budget.”

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